Royal African Company: Official Slave Trade Act of British Parliament, 1750
(I am personally appalled by the stark, business-like manner in which the Royal African Company conducted themselves while developing the following Parliamentary Acts addressing the Slave Trade. Clearly they viewed Africans as a mere commodity, to be bought and sold like grain or wool. Inhumane. Frightening. Thankfully, the Anti-Slavery movement grew in Great Britain and by 1833 slavery was abolished. Thank God for William Wilberforce and others who risked their very lives to fight against this evil. Given the tension between the American colonies and England, it is truly amazing that the Abolitionist movement moved across the Atlantic from England to the American colonies. The Anti-Slavery movement brought people together who, at the time, would not naturally want to be in the same room. The following 60+ vintage documents provide the context and some background information written by the people who instituted the British Slave Trade.)
1660 -- Charles II chartered the Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to Africa
1663 -- company reorganized with a monopoly in the slave trade
1667 -- Royal Adventurers went bankrupt largely due to losses in war with Holland
1672 -- Royal African Company, known colloquially as the Guinea company, granted royal charter with a new monopoly in the slave trade, operating on the west African Coast from the Gambia River to the Niger River. The Company built coastal forts as holding pens for slaves
1698 -- Parliament ended the RAC monopoly and opened the slave trade to all; average number of slaves transported on English ships increased from 5,000 to 20,000+ a year (we own this document also)
1750 -- Parliament (under King George II) created the Company of Merchants Trading to Africa to replace the Royal African Company with a policy of protected free trade -- Official Parliament document detailing the new Company-->
1752 -- Royal African Company dissolved
Later 1700s -- British exploration and settlement began
First English Slave Voyage: It was in 1562 by Sir John Hawkins, which was an encroachment on Portugal’s monopoly of Africa. Slave trade dropped as British foreign policy in 1783, thus indicating 221 years of the trade. The trade was sharply stimulated by the establishment of the British colonies in the Caribbean and the introduction of the sugar industry.”
Companies Involved: Company of Royal Adventurers (which held a monopoly), which was replaced by the Royal African Company in 1672 (after the war with the Dutch). Note the ties to the royal family. “The policy of monopoly…provoked determined resistance…” from merchants and planters, the latter “…demanding free trade in blacks as vociferously and with as much gusto as one hundred and fifty years later they opposed free trade in sugar”. The monopoly was complete: purchase and control of ships, sale of Negroes, importation of plantation produce. Opposition to other monopolies was also common:
“In 1698 the Royal African Company lost its monopoly and the right of a free trade in slaves was recognized as a fundamental and natural right of Englishmen”. The Royal African Company, once losing its competitive advantage, received parliamentary subsidy, only to abandon the slave trade in 1731, when it abandoned slaving in favor of traffic in ivory and gold dust. Gradually its powers lessened and it became unable to maintain the complex network of …"…lands, forts, castles, slaves, military stores, and all other effects…". “In 1750 a new organization was established, called the Company of Merchants Trading to Africa”. For many years His Majesty’s Exchequer had defrayed all the Company’s expenses via Parliament, and it was finally decided to, in effect, transfer the Company to public ownership, incorporating the lands in the colony of Sierra Leone. "The Act for Extending and Improving the Trade to Africa" -->
BACKGROUND: ROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY, the British company that dealt in the Slave Trade with Africa. This company was deeply involved with the Slave Trade beginning in 1660 and continued until 1731 when it took up trade in gold dust and ivory from Africa. The Royal African Company was a slaving company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants once the former retook the English throne in the English Restoration of 1660. It was led by James, Duke of York, Charles II's brother. Originally known as the Company of Royal Adventurers Trading to Africa, it was granted a monopoly over the English slave trade, by its charter issued in 1660. With the help of the army and navy it established trading posts on the West African coast, and it was responsible for seizing any rival English ships that were transporting slaves. It collapsed in 1667 during the war with the Netherlands – the very war it started by having company Admiral Robert Holmes attacking the Dutch African trade posts in 1664 – and re-emerged in 1672, having been merged with those of the Gambia Merchants' Company into the new Royal African Company, with a royal charter to set up forts, factories, troops and to exercise martial law in West Africa, in pursuit of trade in gold, silver and slaves. In the 1680s it was transporting about 5,000 slaves per year. Many were branded with the letters 'DY', after its chief, the Duke of York, who succeeded his brother on the throne in 1685, becoming James II. Other slaves were branded with the company's initials, RAC, on their chests. Between 1672 and 1689 it transported around 90,000-100,000 slaves. Its profits made a major contribution to the increase in the financial power of those who controlled London. In 1698, it lost its monopoly. This was advantageous for merchants in Bristol, even if, like the Bristolian Edward Colston, they had already been involved in the compound. The number of slaves transported on English ships then increased dramatically. The company continued slaving until 1731, when it abandoned slaving in favor of trafficking in ivory and gold dust Charles Hayes (1678–1760), mathematician and chronologist was sub-governor of Royal African Company till 1752 when it was dissolved. Its successor was the African Company of Merchants. The Royal African Company's logo depicted an elephant and castle. From 1668 to 1722 the Royal African Company provided gold to the English Mint. Coins made with this gold bear an elephant below the bust of the king and/or queen. This gold also gave the coinage its name—the guinea.
~ Genuine British Parliamentary Acts (60+) Regarding The Slave Trade (1698 - 1873) ~
The following chronological list (1695 - 1873) of Acts of British Parliament are very scarce and historically important. Original, First Edition Acts of Parliament have long been valued and collected. These are fine examples with clear royal emblems at the head of every first page. After an Act was passed by Parliament, it was printed by the Crown printers in London. Only a few Acts were printed at one time, loosely sewn together at the inner margin. Each Act is in excellent condition, quarto size (12" by 8"), printed on fine rag paper.
>>>> 1743 Parliamentary Acts, under King George II -- An entire volume (over 900 pages), in immaculate condition, containing all of the Acts of Parliament in 1743. It includes an Act "For the Encouraging and Increasing of Shipping and Navigation, as to the Importation on the Account of Aliens, of Goods of the Growth or Production of the Plantations of Spain and Portugal, in England duly Navigated."
-- 1745 Parliamentary Act, under King George II -- An Act of interesting text relating to the preservation of the trade in Sugar to the West Indies. "The Act for the Better Encouragement of the Trade of His Majesties Sugar Colonies in America".
-- 1750 Parliamentary Act, under King George II -- An Act establishing a new organization, the Company of Merchants Trading to Africa”. "The Act for Extending and Improving the Trade to Africa".
-- 1751 Parliamentary Act, under King George II -- An intriguing Act for allowing further time to the Commissioners appointed by and in pursuance of an Act for exempting and improving the Slave Trade to Africa to inquire into the claims of certain creditors of the Royal African Company therein mentioned, and for the relief of David Crichton; and for the restraining of said company from disposing of such effects as are therein mentioned; and for staying all suits for money due from, or on the account of said company for the time therein mentioned (Two copies of this Act of Parliament).
>>>> 1752 Parliamentary Act, under George II -- An entire volume (over 800 pages). Hardcover bound Law Acts Volume, total page number of 826 pages! containing all of the Acts of Parliament in 1752. Many acts in this huge volume, including an act for divesting the Royal African Company of their forts and settlements, laws for the growth of Coffee in America, admission of the vassals of the principality of Scotland, etc. Pages are clean and in Vg condition in the main with some light foxing to the latter pages.
-- 1754 Parliamentary Act, under King George II -- This Act is "For the Better Encouragement of the Trade of His Majesty's Sugar Colonies in America". This was the period of the Jacobite Rebellion led by Prince Charlie. Five pages of interesting text relating to the preservation of the sugar trade to the West Indies and the America colonies.
KING GEORGE III (1760 - 1820) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- 1767 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- This Act documents the duty-free importation of wheat and wheat flour from Africa and rice from the North American colonies for a limited period of time. An important piece of primary historical source material. May 19th -- 6 pages.
-- 1780 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- This Act is "To allow the Trade between Ireland and the British Colonies and Plantations in America and the West Indies, and the British Settlements on the Coast of Africa, to be carried on in like manner as it is now carried on between Great Britain and the said Colonies and Settlements.
-- 1780 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- This Act is To continue the Act limiting the number of slaves per tonnage of vessel. Surgeon to be appointed. Customs Officer to search and count number of slaves to prove it does not exceed the limit -- 22 pages.
-- 1788 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to regulate the slave trade, for an initial period of one year. It sets out a series of rules to be followed by masters and surgeons of ships in order to increase the likelihood of survival of the slaves onboard their vessels. Essentially it is a series of orders and financial incentives to get slaves to their destinations alive and in better conditions than existed at the time of the Act.
-- 1788 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- A remarkable Act Establishing a company for carrying on trade in Africa, in the Peninsulas of Sierra Leone, called the Sierra Leone Company. The Company to have buildings and secure trade rights within Africa in joint dealings with African Princes. Naming about 100 persons, including William Wilberforce, as joint stockholders -- 24 pages.
BACKGROUND: Foreign trade was established through coastal African rulers who prohibited European traders from entering the interior. In 1787, British Philanthropists founded the “Province of Freedom” which later became Freetown, a British crown colony and the principal base for the suppression of the slave trade. By 1792, 1200 freed slaves from Nova Scotia joined the original settlers, the Maroons, another group of slaves, rebelled in Jamaica and traveled to Freetown in 1800.Through the efforts of such men as William Wilberforce, Thomas Clarkson and Granville Sharp, Lord Mansfield formed an administration in 1806, which was instrumental in the British Empire’s abolition of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade (1807). The British established a naval base in Freetown to patrol against illegal slave ships. A fine of GBP £100 was established for every slave found on a British ship. In 1808 Sierra Leone officially became a crown colony with the land possessions of the Sierra Leone Company (formerly known as St. George’s Bay Company) transferred to the crown. The colony was dedicated to demonstrating the principles of Christianity, civilization and commerce. The Sierra Leone Company was the organization involved in founding the first British colony in Africa in 1792 through the resettlement of Black Loyalist African Americans, mostly ex-slaves who had initially been settled in Nova Scotia after the American Revolutionary War. The Sierra Leone Company was the successor to St. George's Bay Company which had made a mostly unsuccessful attempt in 1787 to establish a free settlement for the 'Black Poor' of London. Both ventures were promoted by the anti-slavery activist, Granville Sharp who published a prospectus for the proposed company in 1790 This was entitled Free English Territory in AFRICA. The prospectus made clear its abolitionist view and stated that several respectable gentlemen had already subscribed had done so "not with a view of any present profit to themselves, but merely, through benevolence and public spirit, to promote a charitable measure, which may hereafter prove of great national importance to the Manufactories, and other Trading Interests of this Kingdom". Among the early subscribers are many friends of Sharp involved in the Clapham Sect: Henry Thornton, William Wilberforce, Rev. Thomas Clarkson, Rev. Thomas Gisborne, Samuel Whitbread
-- 1792 Parliamentary Register (House of Commons) -- Three rare issues from the 2nd Session of the 17th Parliament of Great Britain, dated March 1st, June 12th and June 30th. Various items of interest and reform including: An Inquiry into the Evils Arising from Lotteries, Wine License Bill, African Slave Trade and Slave Trade Bill. Each issue is about 60 pages, in quite good condition. London: printed for J. Debrett, 1792.
BACKGROUND: The British Parliament is the legislative body of Government in the United Kingdom. It is comprised of two chambers: the House of Lords, where members are appointed by past or current governments, and the House of Commons, a democratically elected chamber with elections to it held at least every 5 years. The Parliamentary Register is the record of Parliamentary deliberations in the form of bills, reports, minutes, committee proceedings, and appropriations. You will notice that in these two June issues of The Parliamentary Register a number of the speeches are about the Slave trade. In April 1791 with a closely reasoned four-hour speech, Wilberforce introduced the first parliamentary bill to abolish the Slave Trade. His first bill was easily defeated. On 2 April 1792, Wilberforce again brought a bill calling for abolition. The memorable debate that followed drew contributions from the greatest orators in the house, William Pitt and Charles James Fox, as well as from Wilberforce himself. Henry Dundas, as home secretary, proposed a compromise solution of so-called "gradual abolition" over a number of years. This was passed by 230 to 85 votes, but the compromise was little more than a clever ploy, with the intention of ensuring that total abolition would be delayed indefinitely. But from that time on Wilberforce tirelessly introduced a bill to abolish the Slave Trade every year until it was accepted on 25 March 1807.
-- 1793 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to continue Acts regulating the carrying of Slaves in British vessels. No more than 5 slaves to three tons burden of each vessel. The upper and lower cabin and the space between decks to be allotted to the slaves. A qualified surgeon must be aboard, and to produce a record of such trips. -- 17th June, 22 pages.
-- 1795 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to amend and continue Acts regulating the carrying of Slaves in British vessels. No ships to carry slaves unless specified for that purpose on leaving port. No more than 5 slaves to three tons burden of each vessel. The upper and lower cabin and the space between decks to be allotted to the slaves. A qualified surgeon must be aboard, and to produce a complete journal of such trips. Penalties for more than 2% mortality. Masters of ships prosecuted for breaking any regulations can have the ship and contents seized and sold. Master to have a copy of this Act posted in the most public place upon his vessel. -- 22nd June, 14 pages
-- 1797 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to stop slaves being sold as chattels to repay debts. This is repealing a previous Act made for the recovery of debts in His Majesty's Plantations and Colonies in America. July 19th -- 2 pages.
-- 1799 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act for Regulating the Manner of carrying Slaves on British Vessels from the Coast of Africa. Printed by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan, printers for King George III. 16 pages.
-- 1802 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act of interesting text. "The Act for Duties to Be Suspended on the Treaty of Amity, Commerce and navigation between Britain and America".
-- 1804 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to amend and continue, as relates to allowing British Plantation Sugar to be warehoused'. It is dated 3rd May 1804, on 2 pages of paper (only one piece has type on both sides, but both pieces are water-marked) and is printed by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan.
In 1805 the House of Commons passed a bill that made it unlawful for any British subject to capture and transport slaves, but the measure was blocked by the House of Lords.
-- 1806 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to prohibit for two years, after the conclusion of the present session of Parliament, any ships to clear out from any Port of Great Britain for the Coast of Africa, for the purpose of taking on board Negroes, unless such ships have been previously employed in the African Trade, or contracted for, for that purpose. 21st July 1806 -- 3 pages. Eight months before the abolition of slavery by British Parliament, pressure by some Members were forcing through such Acts as this to stop the spread of slavery.
In February 1806, Lord Grenville formed a Whig administration. Grenville and his Foreign Secretary, Charles Fox, were strong opponents of the slave trade. Fox and William Wilberforce led the campaign in the House of Commons, whereas Grenville, had the task of persuading the House of Lords to accept the measure. Greenville made a passionate speech where he argued that the trade was "contrary to the principles of justice, humanity and sound policy" and criticized fellow members for "not having abolished the trade long ago". When the vote was taken the Abolition of the Slave Trade bill was passed in the House of Lords by 41 votes to 20. In the House of Commons it was carried by 114 to 15 and it become law on 25th March, 1807. British captains who were caught continuing the trade were fined £100 for every slave found on board. However, this law did not stop the British slave trade. If slave-ships were in danger of being captured by the British navy, captains often reduced the fines they had to pay by ordering the slaves to be thrown into the sea. Some people involved in the anti-slave trade campaign such as Thomas Clarkson and Thomas Fowell Buxton, argued that the only way to end the suffering of the slaves was to make slavery illegal. However, it was not until 1833 that Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act.
-- 1807 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade" [25th March 1807, pp. 315-326] This particular Act is contained in A Collection of the Public General Statutes Passed in the Forty Seventh Year of the Reign of His Majesty King George the Third: Being the First Session of the Third Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Published in London by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan, Printers to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 1807. Bound collection of public statutes from 1807, most notable for the act to abolish the slave trade throughout the British Empire. Other acts include import taxes, a number of acts relating to Ireland, notably the ban on importing weapons, as well as other interesting statutes including the Window tax. Half bound in leather, the boards being very worn with the upper board loose and the lower board detached and the spine chipped with loss to the ends and parts of the spine plate. Internally the pages are in pretty good condition given their age, although one of the index pages appears to have been removed at some point and the endpapers are detached. Size a shade under 12 x 8 inches. 464pp.
-- 1807 Parliamentary Act (2 copies of this particular Act) -- “An Act for transferring to His Majesty, certain Possessions and rights vested in the Sierra Leone Company, and for shortening the Duration of the said Company, and for preventing any dealing or trafficking in the buying or selling of Slaves within the Colony of Sierra Leone.” – 3 pages, August 8th, 1807. The British Parliament felt the need to take over the Sierra Leone company with all its land and buildings to force the issue with known slave traffickers in the area.
-- 1807 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act to repeal so much of certain acts as relates to the regulations or conditions under which coffee, coca nuts, sugar and rice are allowed to be secured in warehouses, without payments of duty; and to authorize the collectors and comptrollers of the customs in His Majesty's colonies and plantations in America and the West Indies to administer certain oaths.
-- 1814 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- "An Act dated 27th May 1814 regarding the Registration of Condemned Slave Ships as British-built Ships."
-- 1815 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- "An Act dated 11th July 1815 regarding the Support of Captured Slaves During Period of Adjudication."
-- 1817 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An Act of fascinating text (after the War of 1812). "The Act Extending to Newfoundland, Permitting Exportation of Wares from the British Islands in the West Indies to any Other, and to and from the Colonies in America".
-- 1818 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- An intriguing Act carrying an execution (agreement) between His Majesty George III and the King of Portugal for the preventing of traffic in Slaves. Gives details of agreements for Royal Navy Warships to board and seize vessels of both countries trading in slaves but gives (seemingly) exceptions to some Portuguese vessels with "issued paperwork". Mentions among others obscure West African colonies such as "Molembo" and "Cabinda", and also the "Brazils".
-- 1819 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- "An Act dated 12th July 1819 regarding an Act for more speedy trial of offences upon the Seas against the Laws of Abolition of the Slave Trade."
-- 1819 Parliamentary Act, under King George III -- "An Act dated 12th July 1819 regarding an Act for making provision for the Removal of Slaves from British Colonies."
KING GEORGE IV (1820 - 1830) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- 1821 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act for Abolishing the African Company, and Transferring to and Vesting in His Majesty all Forts, Possessions, and Property now belonging or held by Them." [7th May, 1821]. London: printed by George Eyre and Andrew Strahan, Printers to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty. 1821, 4 pages long.
-- 1821 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 10th July 1821 regarding the Appropriation of Proceeds Arising from Capture of Vessels & Cargoes belonging to Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands in Prosecution of the Slave Trade."
A new Anti-Slavery Society was formed in 1823. Members included Thomas Clarkson, Henry Brougham, William Wilberforce, Thomas Fowell Buxton, Elizabeth Heyrick, Mary Lloyd, Jane Smeal, Elizabeth Pease and Anne Knight).
-- 1824 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 31st March 1824 regarding the More Effectual Suppression of the African Slave Trade."
-- 1827 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 2nd July 1827 regarding the Effect the Treaty with Sweden relative to the Slave Trade."
-- 1827 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 2nd July 1827 regarding the Execution of a Convention between Britain and Brazil on the Abolition of the Slave Trade."
-- 1828 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 25th July 1828 regarding Amending and Consolidating the Laws relating to the Abolition of the Slave Trade."
-- 1830 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 16th July 1830 regarding the Reduction of Rate of Bounties Payable on Seizure of Slaves."
KING WILLIAM IV (1830 - 1837) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- 1833 Parliamentary Bill (Very Rare) -- For the Abolition of Slavery Throughout the British Colonies, For Promoting the Industry of the Manumitted Slaves, and for Compensating the Owners of Such Slaves, July 5, 1833. 25 pages. -- It was not until 1833 that Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act, which made slavery illegal and gave all slaves their freedom.
-- 1833 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 28th August 1833 regarding Two Conventions with the King of France for Suppressing the Slave Trade."
-- 1834 Parliamentary Act [26th March 1834] (44 pages) -- "An Act for Punishing Mutiny and Desertion, and for the Better Payment of the Army and their Quarters. It includes "...That all Negroes purchased by or on account of His Majesty...shall be considered as Soldiers having voluntarily enlisted..."
-- 1834 Parliamentary Act [15th August 1834] (27 pages) -- (On August 1, 1834 all slaves in the British Empire were emancipated, but still indentured to their former owners in an apprenticeship system which was finally abolished in 1838. £20 million was paid in compensation to plantation owners in the Caribbean.) -- An Act to apply a Sum of Money out of the Consolidated Fund and the Surplus of Grants to the Service of the Year 1834, and to appropriate the Supplies granted in this Session of Parliament. This document details where the money is to be spent: "£580 for Office of Registrar of Colonial Slaves", "£16,200 for Commissioners for preventing the Slave Trade", "£5,707 to defray the Charge of the Salaries of the Inspectors and Superintendents of the Factories...to regulate the Labour of Children and young Persons in the Mills and Factories...", "£12,750 to the Baptist Missionary Society, and to the Wesleyan Missionary Society, on account of Expenses incurred in the Erection of certain Chapels destroyed in the Island of Jamaica", £1,000 for the Female Orphan House, Dublin" and much more...
The British government paid compensation to the slave owners. The amount that the plantation owners received depended on the number of slaves that they had. For example, the Bishop of Exeter's 665 slaves resulted in him receiving £12,700.
-- 1835 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 31st August 1835 regarding the compensation of Owners of Slaves upon Abolition."
-- 1835 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 9th September 1835 regarding the Treaty with King of France and the King of Denmark for Suppressing the Slave Trade."
-- 1835 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for Carrying into Effect a Treaty with the King of the French and the King of Sardinia for suppressing the Slave Trade [9th September 1835]”
-- 1835 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect the Treaty with the King of the French and the King of Denmark for suppressing the Slave Trade [9th September 1835]” - 32 pages
-- 1836 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 30th March 1836 regarding the Treaty with the Queen Regent of Spain on the Abolition of Slavery."
-- 1836 Parliamentary Act, under King George IV -- "An Act dated 7th June 1836 regarding an extension until 1840 of an Act of the Legislature of Jamaica for the Abolition of Slavery. "
QUEEN VICTORIA (1837 - 1901) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-- 1837 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to carry into further Execution the Provision of an Act completing the full Payment of Compensation to Owners of Slaves upon the Abolition of Slavery [23d December 1837]” – 3 pages
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to amend the Act for the Abolition of Slavery in the British Colonies [11th April 1838]” – 10 pages
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for the better and more effectually carrying into effect the Treaties and conventions made with Foreign Powers for suppressing the Slave Trade [27th July 1838]” – 3 pages
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect a Convention of Accession of the Hans Towns to Two Conventions with the King of the French, for suppressing the Slave Trade [27th July 1838]”
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to carry into effect an additional Article to a Treaty with Sweden relative to the Slave Trade [27th July 1838]”
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect an additional Article to a Treaty with the Netherlands relating to the Slave Trade [27th July 1838]” – 6 pages
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect a Convention of Accession of the Duke of Tuscany to Two conventions with the King of the French for suppressing the Slave Trade [10th august 1838]
-- 1838 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect a Convention of Accession of the King of the Two Sicilies to Two Conventions with the King of the French for suppressing the Slave Trade [10th August 1838]” – 7 pages
-- 1848 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect the Treaty between Her Majesty and the Republic of the Equator for the Abolition of the Traffic in Slaves [4th September 1848]” – 26 pages.
-- 1849 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect the Agreement between Her Majesty and the Imam of Muscat for the more effectual Suppression of the Slave Trade [5th September 1848]” – 6 pages
-- 1849 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for carrying into effect Engagements between Her Majesty and certain Arabian Chiefs in the Persian Gulf for the more effectual Suppression of the Slave Trade [1st August 1849]” – 8 pages
-- 1861 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to apply out of the Consolidated Fund and the Surplus of the Ways and Means to the Service of 1861, and to appropriate supplies granted in this session of Parliament [August 6, 1861] Includes mention of sums granted to David Livingstone (Expedition to the River Zambezi), Dr. Baikie (expedition to the River Niger), exploration of N.W. Australia, Bounties for Slaves, etc,. – 17 pages
-- 1869 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act to regulate and extend the Jurisdiction of Her Majesty’s Consul at Zanzibar in regard to vessels captured on suspicion of being engaged in the Slave Trade, and for other purposes relating thereto [9th August 1869]” – 3 pages
-- 1869 Parliamentary Act -- "Original and complete Act of Parliament (one page only) This Act repeals the recited earlier Act due to the cessation of the importation of slaves to Brazil from Africa.
-- 1873 Parliamentary Act -- “An Act for regulating and extending the Jurisdiction in matters connected with the Slave Trade of the Vice-Admiralty Court at Aden, and of Her Majesty’s Consuls under Treaties with the sovereigns of Zanzibar, Muscat, and Madagascar, and under future Treaties [5th August 1873]” – 5 pages
-- There are also other items of similar interest, like an Act to amend the Act for the Abolition of Slavery in the British Colonies (1838) and an Act to remove doubts as to the Rights of the liberated Africans in Sierra Leone (1853) and much more.
-- Journals of the House of Lords Volume LIV (January 23, 1821 - January 3, 1822) -- Covers many fascinating topics, including an Act going through between 2 and 10th July as follows: "An act for the appropriation of certain proceeds arising from the capture of vessels and cargoes of the property of the subjects of the kings of Spain Portugal and the Netherlands, taken and seized in violation of the conventions made with those States; and for granting Bounties for Slaves Captured in such vessels taken in the Prosecution of the Slave Trade". The Bill goes through various readings referenced in the book and was ultimately passed. It was called the "Captured Slaves Bill".
-- A priceless 4-page 1843 British Foreign Office Circular (see below) alerting British Consuls about the legal penalties placed upon British subjects still involved in the Slave Trade. This absolutely rare document is personally handwritten and signed by Lord Aberdeen, who later became Prime Minister of Great Britain (1852-1855). Lord Aberdeen wrote this while he was the British Consul at Trieste, Italy.
-- 1858 letter handwritten by Lord Aberdeen stating that he would not attend Queen Victoria's State Ball at Buckingham Palace because of his poor health. He died within the year.
-- Engraved image of Lord Aberdeen.
-- Rare 1830 edition of the "Abolition of the African Slave-Trade", By the British Parliament. Abridged from Thomas Clarkson. Together with a Brief View of the Present State of the Slave-Trade and of Slavery. Volume I (Only). Augusta: Published by P.A. Brinsmade, At the Depository of Kennebec Co., Sunday School Union. 227 pages. 3 3/4" x 6". The book is hardbound cloth-backed boards with leather spine. The spine has gilt lettering. The book is complete and intact. The interior is clean. It has wear at the extremities. It has chipping and wear at the spine leather and an ex-library sticker. The front board and end page is detached.
-- Three rare First Edition books (1855, 1857, 1868) on the British Slave Trade presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty -- with reports from Africa, Zanzibar, Portugal, Spain, Egypt, Brazil, Madagascar, France, The United States, Turkey, Sardinia and Tripoli -- providing a fascinating window into the 19th Century perceptions of slavery and the slave trades. Printed by Harrison & Sons, London. Includes special correspondence from Consul Charles Livingstone (Brother of David) on tribal slave dealers. Exquisite marbled leather covers.
-- The Map of Africa by Treaty, by Sir Edward Hertslet, Librarian of the Foreign Office. This book was printed for His Majesty's Stationery Office by Harrison and Sons, St. Martin's Lane, London, in 1909, and is Volume One. Original hardbound book on the various treaties establishing British colonies on the African continent, published more than 97 years ago. This volume describes British colonies, protectorates, and possessions in Africa. It includes the text of numerous treaties establishing boundary lines and other administrative details, organized in three major sections: i. British West Africa ii. British South and Central Africa iii. British East Africa -- There are six fold-out maps, bound into the text to illustrate terms of the various treaties. In addition to the maps, there are more than 400 pages of text, detailing the actual language of the different treaties between Great Britain and the various chiefs and potentates of the African nations. And here is an excerpt from the 1861 cession to Great Britain of the port and island of Lagos, Nigeria: Pension to be paid to King Docemo "In consideration of the the cession...the Representatives of the Queen of Great Britain do promise, subject to the approval of her Majesty, that Docemo shall receive an annual pension from the Queen of Great Britain equal to the net revenue hitherto annually received by him; such pension to be paid at such periods and in such modes as may hereafter be determined." By an Additional Article to the above Treaty, dated 18th February, 1862, it was agreed that King Docemo should receive as a pension from the British Government 1,200 bags of cowries yearly, as equal to his net revenue, provided he did not break any of the the Articles of that Treaty, and resigned all claim upon former farmers of his revenue. Hertslet's text tells the story of Africa's partition in formal detail, and this volume is a valuable historical resource. The book was originally published in 1894, and this volume is the 1909 edition, with revisions by R.W. Brant and H.L. Sherwood. The overall size of the book is 10" x 6 1/2".
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